Target notes are essential to developing fretboard knowledge and moving around your fretboard. As you develop as a guitarist your ability to rapidly find a suitable note on the fretboard grows also. Perhaps you may recall as a beginner guitarist only learning a few notes, probably near the nut of your guitar. As time went on you learned more and more notes and how to play the same notes in different places, or octaves.
The diagram here shows all the A notes of your guitar fretboard up to the 12th fret. At first it might seem like a jumbled mess. Just run your eyes along each string. You'll notice the open note on the A string and the dotted note on the 12th fret. Each other string only has one note on it - that is up to the 12th fret where it all repeats (this means any note not just an A note).
If you're just learning guitar you don't need to memorise all of these in one sitting, or you just might depending on your approach. Learning where target notes are on a guitar is one thing, to really develop as a guitarist you need to know what to do with them. And that's a whole other bunch of lessons.
For now, see how you go with your fretboard knowledge of the A notes on every string up to the 12th fret.
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